Appendix J: Chemical Preparations:


The following is a list of the solutions and chemicals required throughout the laboratory manual. It is organized alphabetically, and individual exercises list the materials needed for that exercise. For many solutions, directions are given for a molar solution and the user is left to dilute to the appropriat e concentration for their needs. There are many vendors of the chemicals listed, and many of the solutions can also be purchased pre-mixed.

Acetic acid (MW 60.05)
Glacial acetic acid is 99.6% (w/v) acetic acid, and is 17.4 M.
1 M
Add 57.5 ml of glacial acetic acid to 800 ml of water and then make to 1 liter with water.
0.05 N
Add 2.87 ml of glacial acetic acid to 800 ml of water and then make to 1 liter with water.
0.9 M
Add 54 ml of glacial acetic acid to 800 ml of water and then make to 1 liter with water.
7% (w/v)
Add 70 ml of glacial acetic acid to 800 ml of water and then make to 1 liter with water.
45% (w/v)
Add 450 ml of glacial acetic acid to 500 ml of water and then make to 1 liter with water.

Acetic Acid/Butanol/Water (15:60:25)
Combine 150 ml of glacial acetic acid, 600 ml of nbutanol and 250 ml of water.

Aceto-orcein
Add 2.0 grams of orcein to 45 ml of glacial acetic acid. Bring to a boil and continue to heat until completely dissolved. Cool and add 55 ml of distilled water. Filter prior to use. Note: Some early investigators added a of an iron salt (such as ferric citrate) as a mordant. It tends to increase the intensity of the aceto-orcein stain. The same reaction can be had by chopping plant material with an older steel (not stainless) razor blade.

Acid alcohol
Add 1.0 ml of concentrated HCl to 100 ml of 70% (v/v) ethyl alcohol.

Acid Orcinol Reagent (0.1% FeCl_3 in 10% HCl)
Add 0.1 grams of FeCl_3 to 50 ml of 10% (v/v) HCl and make to 100 ml with 10% HCl.

Acrylamide Solutions
Acrylamide solutions for PAGE are given as total concentration of acrylamide (acrylamide + bisacrylamide) and the amount of cross linker (bisacrylamide). This is listed as the T:C ratio. For example, a 10% gel (10%T:5%C) would contain a total of 10 g rams of acrylamide per 100 ml, and would be composed of 5 grams of acrylamide and 5 grams of bisacrylamide. Usually, a stock solution of 30% acrylamide is produced containing 0.8% bis-acrylamide. Many investigators use 30 grams of acrylamide plus 0.8 gram s of bis-acrylamide per 100 ml of water, but 29.2 grams of acrylamide plus 0.8 grams of bis would be technically correct. In practice, it makes little difference since the gels are diluted to 10% or less. The 30% stock solution is filtered through a 0.45 µ filter and stored at 4 ° C in the dark. For use, the stock solution is diluted with an appropriate buffer (usually a 2X Tris-HCl). The stock solution is stable for about one month. Discard after this period.

Acrylamides in their monomeric form are neurotoxic. Polymerize all acrylamide solutions prior to disposal.

SDS,-mercaptoethanol and a tracker dye (bromophenol blue) are added at various points. Refer to Chapter 4 for more complete details.

Alcian blue (MW 1300)
0.001 M
Dissolve 0.13 grams of Alcian Blue 8GX (Sigma # A-2899) in 100 ml of water.

Alcohol Orcinol Reagent (10% orcinol in 95% ethanol)
Dissolve 1.0 gram of orcinol in 95% ethanol to a final volume of 10 ml .

Alkaline Distilled Water
Add one pellet of NaOH to 1 liter of distilled water.

Alkaline Solution for G-banding
Dissolve 2.8 grams of NaOH and 6.2 grams of NaCl to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

-Aminosalicic Acid (PAS MW 175.1)
6% (w/v)
Dissolve 6.0 grams of PAS to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Ammonium acetate (MW 77.08)
0.1 M
Add 7.708 grams of Ammonium acetate to a final volume of 1 liter of water.

Ammonium persulfate (MW 228.2)
10% (w/v)
Dissolve 1.0 grams of ammonium persulfate to a final volume of 10 ml with water. Mix fresh, prior to use as a catalyst for PAGE. Normally, about 50 µ l of ammonium persulfate is added to each 15 of gel solution for polymerization.Dissolve 0.13 grams o f Alcian Blue 8GX (Sigma # A-2899) in 100 ml of water.

Ammonium sulfate (MW 132.14)
2% (w/v)
Add 2 grams of ammonium sulfate to a final volume of 100 ml water.
4.1M(sat.) 0.001 M
Dissolve 542 grams of ammonium sulfate to a final volume of 1 liter.

n-Amyl alcohol (Pentanol C_5H_1_1OH MW 88.15)
Density = 0.8144 grams/ml
0.38 M
The amyl alcohol can be weighed (33.5 grams) or measured volumetrically by using the density. That is, 33.5 grams 0.8144 grams/ml or 41.1 ml of n-amyl alcohol. Weigh or measure the appropriate amount and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Amylase, buffered pH 7.0
1% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.5 grams of amylase to a final volume of 50 ml with 0.01 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0.

Ascorbic acid (MW 176.12)
2 mM
Dissolve 35.2 mg of ascorbic acid to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate, MW 507.21)
5 mM
Dissolve 254 mg of ATP to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.Dissolve 35.2 mg of ascorbic acid to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Baker's Formalin
Add 1.0 gram of calcium chloride, 1.0 gram of cadmium chloride and 10 ml of concentrated formalin to 75 ml of water. Make to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Benzoic acid (MW 122.12)
8 mM
Dissolve 98 mg of benzoic acid to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Bis-acrylamide (N,N'-Methylene-bis-acrylamide)
Cross linker for acrylamide gels. Refer to Acrylamide solutions or Chapter Four for more details.

Biuret Reagent
Add 1.50 grams of CuSO_4 · H_2O and 6.0 grams of sodium potassium tartrate to 500 ml of water. Separately make 300 ml of 10% (w/v) NaO H by dissolving 300 grams of NaOH to a final volume of 300 ml with water. Combine the two solutions in a 1 liter volumetric, swirl to mix and make up to 1 liter with water. Store the final solution in a dark, plastic bottle. Discard if black or red precip itate forms.

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)
There are many grades of BSA available and care should be taken when using this protein. For routine protein concentration standards, a 96-99% pure fraction (Sigma # A 2153) may be used. For tissue culture, RIA, or molecular weight standardization, BSA sh ould be optained which is extracted and purified specifically for that purpose.

1% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.5 grams of BSA to a final volume of 50 ml in water or buffer.

Bradford Protein Assay
This procedure uses an absorbance shift in an acidic Coomasie Blue solution. It is commercially available from Pierce Chemical Company, Rockford, Illinois as Protein Assay Reagent, Cat. # 23200. It contains methanol and solubilizing agents and is very rel iable.
If you wish to make your own, dissolve 100 mg of Coomasie Brilliant Blue G-250 in 50 ml of 95% ethanol. Add 100 ml of 85% phosphoric acid, and bring to a final volume of 1 liter with distilled water.

Phosphoric acid is extremely corrosive. Handle with care.

Bromophenol blue (Sodium salt, MW 692.0)
0.001 (w/v)
Dissolve 1 mg of Bromophenol blue, sodium salt (Sigma # B7021) to a final volume of 100 ml with either water or buffer.

n-Butanol (C_4H_9OH MW 74.12)
Density = 0.8098 grams/ml
1.1 M
The butanol can be weighed (81.5 grams) or measured volumetrically by using the density. That is, 81.5 grams 0.8098 grams/ml or 100.7 ml of n-butanol. Weigh or measure the appropriate amount and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

C. elegans Ringers
This is a basic saline solution for nematodes. Dissolve 11.36 grams of Na_2HPO_4 · 7H_2O, 3.0 grams of KH_2PO_4, 0.5 grams of NaCl and 1.0 gram of NH_4Cl to a final volume of 1 liter. Adjust the pH to 7.0. May be autoclaved for sterilization.

Calcium chloride (MW 110.99)
0.0033 M
Dissolve 0.522 grams of calcium acetate to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer.

Calcium chloride (MW 110.99)
0.001 M
Dissolve 0.111 grams of anhydrous calcium chloride to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer.
0.08 M
Dissolve 8.879 grams of anhydrous calcium chloride to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer.
2% (w/v)
Dissolve 2 grams of anhydrous calcium chloride to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

cAMP (Adenosine monophosphate, cyclic MW 329.22)
0.001 M (1mM)
Dissolve 33 mg of cAMP to a final volume of 100 ml with water, buffer or media.

Carnoy fixative
Combine 10.0 ml of glacial acetic acid with 60.0 ml of absolute ethyl alcohol and 30.0 ml of chloroform.

Chloroplast homogenization buffer
To 400 ml of distilled water, add 30.058 grams of sorbitol, 2.23 grams of sodium pyrophosphate, 0.407 grams of magnesium chloride, and 0.176 grams of ascorbic acid. Adjust the pH to 6.5 with HCl and dilute to a final volume of 500 ml.

Chloroplast suspension buffer
To 400 ml of distilled water, add 30.058 grams of sorbitol, 0.372 grams of EDTA, 0.102 grams of magnesium chloride and 5.958 grams of HEPES buffer. Adjust the pH to 7.6 with NaOH and dilute to a final volume of 500 ml.

Chrom alum gelatin (Subbing solution)
Dissolve 5.0 gram of gelatin in 1 liter of boiling water. Cool and add 0.5 grams of potassium chrome alum (CrK(SO_4)_2 · 12H_2O). Store in refrigerator.
To use, dip clean slides into the solution and dry in vertical position in a dust free location.

Citric acid (H_3C_6H_5O_7 · H_2O MW 210.14)
0.1 M
Dissolve 21.01 grams of citric acid to a final volume of 1 liter.

Citrate buffer (Sodium phosphate-Citrate buffer)
0.001 M
PH 4.8
Add 493 ml of 0.2 M Na_2HPO_4 to 507 ml of 0.1 M citric acid.
PH 3.6
Add 322 ml of 0.2 M Na_2HPO_4 to 678 ml of 0.1 M citric acid.
PH 4.2
Add 414 ml of 0.2 M Na_2HPO_4 to 586 ml of 0.1 M citric acid.
PH 5.4
Add 557.5 ml of 0.2 M Na_2HPO_4 to 442.6 ml of 0.1 M citric acid.
PH 6.0
Add 631.5 ml of 0.2 M Na_2HPO_4 to 368.5 ml of 0.1 M citric acid.
PH 6.6
Add 727.5 ml of 0.2 M Na_2HPO_4 to 272.5 ml of 0.1 M citric acid.
PH 7.2
Add 869.5 ml of 0.2 M Na_2HPO_4 to 130.5 ml of 0.1 M citric acid.
PH 7.8
Add 957.5 ml of 0.2 M Na_2HPO_4 to 42.5 ml of 0.1 M citric acid.

Cobaltous Nitrate (MW 182.96)
2% (w/v)
Dissolve 2.0 grams of cobaltous nitrate (hexahydrate is very soluble) to a final volume of 100 ml with water. Keep well closed in a cool place.

Colcemid
10 µ g/ml
Dissolve 10 g of colcemid per ml of saline or culture medium.

Coomasie blue (Coomasie Brilliant Blue R250)
0.25% (w/v)0.001 M
Dissolve 2.50 grams of Coomasie Brilliant Blue R250 to a final volume of 1 liter with 20% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Some investigators use a 0.25% solution of Coomasie Blue in methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (5-5-1).

Copper sulfate (CuSO_4 5H_2O MW 249.68)
0.5% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.13 grams of Alcian Blue 8GX (Sigma # A-2899) in 100 ml of water.

0.5% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.5 grams of copper sulfate to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Copper tartrate/carbonate (CTC)
Dissolve 0.5 grams of copper sulfate and 1.0 gram of potassium sodium tartrate to a final volume of 100 ml with water. Combine 1.0 ml of this solution with 50 ml of 2% Na_2CO
_3 in 0.1 N NaOH. Must be made fresh, prior to use. Stock solutions are stable.

Crystal Violet
Dissolve 0.1 grams of crystal violet and 0.25 ml of glacial acetic acid to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

DCMU (3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-Dimethylurea MW 233.1)
1 x 10^-4 M 0.001 M
Dissolve 2.3 mg DCMU to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.
5 x 10^-7 M0.001 M
Dilute the 1 x 10-^-4 M solution 1/200 prior to use.

Dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP MW 290.1)
0.0025 M
Dissolve 73 mg of DCPIP to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.
0.0001 M
Dissolve 2.9 mg of DCPIP to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Dinitrophenol (DNP MW 184.11)
18.4 mg%
Dissolve 18.4 mg of 2,4-dinitrophenol to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Dische diphenylamine reagent
Dissolve 500 mg of diphenylamine in 49 ml of glacial acetic acid. Add 1.0 ml of concentrated HCl.

Dithiothreitol (Cleland's Reagent MW 154.3)
0.01 M
Dissolve 154 mg of dithiothreitol to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer. Dithiothreitol is available from Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Cat # D0632. Dithioerythritol may be substituted.

DOPA (3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine MW 197.19)
8 mM
Dissolve 158 mg of L-DOPA to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer. Note that the maximum solubility of DOPA in water is 165 mg/100 ml (8.3 mM).

EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid MW 292.24)
1 M
Dissolve 292.24 grams of EDTA, free acid to a final volume of 1 liter. If the more soluble disodium salt of EDTA is used, adjust the weight accordingly. The pH can be adjusted with acetic acid or NaOH. For corresponding concentration dilutions, multiply the weight in grams by the desired molarity. For exam ple, for 10 mM EDTA, multiply 292.24 X 0.010 to obtain 2.92 grams of EDTA per liter.

EGTA (Ethylene Glycol-bis(aminoethyl Ether) N,N,N',N'-Tetraacetic Acid MW 380.4)
1 mM
issolve 380 mg of EGTA to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer.

Eosin
0.5% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.5 grams of Eosin Y in 100 ml of water.

Ethanol (C_2H_3OH MW 46.07)
Density = 0.7893 gm/ml
50-95% (v/v)
Since 95% ethyl alcohol is less expensive and easier to store than absolute, these dilutions should be made with 95% ethyl alcohol. Unless otherwise stated, denatured alcohol works as well as the more expensive non-denatured. A simple way to make the % so lution is to use the appropriate amount of 95% ethanol and dilute to 950 ml instead of 1 liter. For example, to make a 50% (v/v) solution, measure out 500 ml of 95% ethyl alcohol and dilute to a final volume of 950 ml with water. For a 70% solution, meas ure 700 ml of ethyl alcohol and dilute to 950 ml with water. Absolute ethanol should be used directly as 100% ethanol. It is important for histology that this be truly 100%. Since it is hydroscopic (it absorbs water from the air), do not assume it is abso lute unless it is sealed or treated to ensure no water. To test, add a drop to a sample of xylol. If any cloudiness occurs, the alcohol is not absolute.
8.5 M
The ethanol can be weighed (391.6 grams of absolute, 412.2 grams of 95% (v/v) or measured volumetrically by using the density. That is, 391.6 grams 0.7893 grams/ml or 496.1 ml of absolute ethanol. Using 95%, 412.2 grams 0.7893 grams /ml or 522.2 ml. Weigh or measure the appropriate amount and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Ethanol-acetic acid fixative for histology (3:1)
To 75 ml of absolute alcohol, add 25 ml of glacial acetic acid. Must be made fresh, just prior to use.

Fetal Calf Serum (FCS)
While it is possible to prepare your own serum from whole blood, it is easier (and safer) to purchase FCS from a reputable supplier. Commercial sources are free of mycoplasma, pre-sterilized and controlled for the presence of antibodies. There are a n umber of serum substitutes available on the market and these may be less expensive when storage is considered. Suppliers include Gibco, Flow Laboratories, KC Biological and Sigma Chemical Co.

Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent
This is usually purchased premixed, since it is difficult to make. Also known as 2N Folin-phenol reagent.

Giemsa stain
Prepare a stock solution by dissolving 3.8 grams of giemsa powder in 25 ml of glycerin. Heat gently with stirring for about 2 hours at 60 ° C. Cool and add 75 ml of methanol (neutral, acetone free).
For a working solution, dilute the stock solution 1/10 with water before use.
For chromosome banding, combine 5.0 ml of stock Giemsa, 3.0 ml of absolute methanol, 3.0 ml of 0.1 M citric acid and 89 ml of distilled water. Adjust the pH of the solution to 6.6 with Na_2HPO_4.

Glucose (MW 180.16)
10% (v/v)
Dissolve 10 grams of D-glucose (dextrose) in a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Glutaraldehyde (GTA)
5 %
GTA is usually supplied as a 25% or 50% (w/v) solution. It is used for electron microscope fixation as a 5% solution in a buffer. For routine use, add 20 ml of 25% GTA to 80 ml of 0.2 M sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.4.

Glycerol (MW 92.09)
10% (v/v)
To 10 ml of glycerol (glycerine) add enough water to make a final volume of 100 ml.
8 M
Weigh 73.67 grams of glycerol and add to a final volume of 100 ml. Alternatively, measure 499.1 ml of glycerol and make to a final volume of 1 liter (the density of glycerol at room temperature is 1.476) with water or buffer.
For 8 M glycerol in MT buffer, make a 2X MT buffer for use as the diluent.

Glycine (MW 75.07)
0.192 M
Dissolve 1.44 grams of Glycine to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Gram's iodine
Dissolve 0.33 grams of iodine and 0.67 grams of potassium iodide to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

HEPES (N-[2-Hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid] MW 238.3)
50 mM
Dissolve 11.92 grams of HEPES, free acid to a final volume of 1 liter. If hemisodium salt is used, adjust weight accordingly. Do not use sodium salts unless specified. Hemisodium salt contains 0.5 moles of sodium for each mole of HEPES.
10 mM
pH7.6
Dissolve 2.38 grams of HEPES, free acid in 900 ml of water. Adjust the pH with NaOH or HCl to 7.6. Adjust the final volume to 1 liter with distilled water.

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl MW 36.46)
Concentrated HCl has a molarity of approximately 11.6.
HCl is a gas, which is soluble in water and which comes in the form of concentrated reagent grade HCl. This solution is approximately 36-38% (w/v) HCl. To make a 1 N solution, add 86 ml of concentrated HCl to 800 ml of water and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter. For 0.1 N, dilute the 1 N by a factor of 10.
For % solutions, note that liquid HCl is only 38% HCl, thus a 1% solution would require 2.6 ml of concentrated HCl (1/.38) per final volume of 100 ml.

Janus Green B
0.01%(w/v)
Dissolve 10 mg of Janus Green B in 2-3 ml of absolute ethanol. Dilute to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Knudson Media
Knudson X4 Stock:
Ca(NO_3)_2 · 4H_2O
4.0 grams
(NH_2)SO_4
2.0 grams
MgSO_4 · 7H_2O
1.0 gram
Distilled H_2O
1.0 liter

B5 Minor Elements:
H_2SO_4
0.5 ml
MnCl_2 · 4H_2O
2.5 grams
H_3BO_3
2.0 grams
ZnSO_4 · 7H_2O
50 mg
CoCl_2 · 6H_2O
30 mg
CuCl_2 · 2H_2O
15 mg
Na_2MoO_4 · 2H_2O
25 mg
Distilled H_2O
1.0 liter

Ferric Citrate:
FeC_6H_5O_7 · 5H_2O
2.5 grams
Distilled H_2O
100 ml

Stock Phosphate:
K_2HPO_4
25 grams
Distilled H_2O
100 ml

1X Media
Add 250 ml of Knudson X4 to 750 ml of distilled water. Add 0.5 ml of B5 Minor Elements, 0.5 ml of Stock Phosphate, and 0.4 ml of Ferric citrate. Adjust the pH to 5.5 with HCl, add 15 grams of agar and heat to dissolve. Autoclave and pour into plates.< br>
Note:
2.50 grams of sucrose may be added prior to adjustment of the pH, if desired. It is not necessary for germination of spores, but adds an organic source for mutants and abnormal fern growths. It also increases the need for subsequent aseptic technique .

Krebs Phosphate Ringers (KPR)
Prepare each of the following separately:

To mix, combine 200 ml of NaCl, 8 ml of KCl, 6 ml of CaCl_2 and 2 ml of MgSO_4. Carefully, and with constant stirring, add 40 ml of phospha te buffer.

LPS buffer (Lower Pad Solution buffer)
Dissolve 1.5 grams of KCl, 0.5 grams of MgCl_2, and 0.5 grams of steptomycin sulfate in 500 ml of water. Add 40 ml of 1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.5 and dilute to 1 liter with water.

Magnesium chloride (MgCl_2 MW 95.23)
1 mM
Dissolve 95.2 mg of magnesium chloride per final volume of 1 liter.
4 mM
Dissolve 0.381 grams of magnesium chloride per final volume of 1 liter.
10 mM
Dissolve 0.952 grams of magnesium chloride per final volume of 1 liter.
0.1 M
Dissolve 9.523 grams of magnesium chloride per final volume of 1 liter.
Note:
A single stock solution of 1 M MgCl_2 can be mixed by dissolving 95.23 grams of magnesium chloride to a final concentration of 1 liter with water, and all dilutions made appropriately from this stock solution.

Magnesium sulfate (MgSO_4 MW 120.39)
5% (w/v)
Dissolve 5.0 grams of magnesium sulfate to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Mayer's hematoxylin
Purchase commercially or mix with either of the following procedures:

A. Dissolve 1.0 gram of hematoxylin in 10 ml of absolute ethanol. Dissolve 20 grams of potassium alum (KAl(SO_4)_2 · 12H_2O) in 200 ml of water. In a chemical hood, with protection against explosion, bring the potassium alum solution to a boil and add hematoxylin/ethanol mixture. Continue to boil for approximately 1 minute. Add 0. 5 grams of mercuric oxide and cool rapidly. Add 0.5 ml of glacial acetic acid. Filter before use. This mixture is stable for about two months.

B. Alternatively: Dissolve 5.0 grams of hematoxylin in 50 ml of absolute ethanol and add to 650 ml of warm water. Heat gently until the hematoxylin dissolves and then add 300 ml of glycerin, 0.3 grams of sodium iodate and 20 ml. of glacial acetic acid. Co ol and make volume up to 1 liter with distilled water. Filter before use.

>-Mercaptoethanol (MW 78.13)

0.5 M
Density = 1.2 grams/ml. Use either 3.91 grams OR 3.26 ml of mercaptoethanol in a final volume of 100 ml of water or buffer.
5% (w/v)

Use 5.0 grams or 4.167 ml in a final volume of 100 ml of water or buffer.

MES (2-(N-Morphilino)ethanesulfonic acid MW 195.2)
0.1 M
Dissolve 1.952 grams of MES to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Methanol (CH_3OH MW 32.04)
Density = 0.7914 grams/ml
22 M
The methanol can be weighed (704.9 grams) or measured volumetrically by using the density. That is, 704.9 grams 0.7914 grams/ml or 890.7 ml of methyl alcohol. Weigh or measure the appropriate amount and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Methanol/Acetic Acid (for fixing proteins in acrylamide gels)
45%:12%
Add 120 ml of glacial acetic acid to 450 ml of methanol and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Methanol/Acetic Acid (for destaining or fixing proteins in acrylamide gels)
5%:7%
Add 70 ml of glacial acetic acid to 50 ml of methanol and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Methyl green
0.2% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.2 grams of methyl green to a final volume of 100 ml with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 4.2.
Acetate buffer (0.1 M pH 4.2) is prepared by dissolving .361 grams of sodium acetate (trihydrate) in approximately 80 ml of water. Add .42 ml of glacial acetic acid and adjust the volume to 100 ml with water.

Microtubule buffer (MT buffer)
Dissolve 19.52 grams of MES in 800 ml of distilled water. Add 0.380 grams of EGTA and 47.62 grams of MgCl_2. Adjust the pH to 6.4 with HCl or NaOH and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter with disti lled water.

Minimum essential medium (MEM)
For all purposes of this manual, MEM refers to Eagle's MEM. While it is possible to mix this medium, it is infinitely easier (and less expensive) to purchase the media pre-mixed from any number of commercial sources (Gibco, Flow, KC Biological, Sigma Chem ical). The ingredients are listed in Table 12.1. It is essential that chemicals of the highest purity are used throughout.

NG agar (Nematode Growth agar)
Dissolve 3.0 grams of NaCl, 2.5 grams of peptone, and 17 grams of agar in a final volume of 1 liter. Boil to dissolve the agar, autoclave to sterilize.

Meanwhile, prepare separate sterile solutions of:

Using proper sterile technique, cool the agar solution slightly and add 1 ml of CaCl_2, 1 ml of uracil, 0.5 ml of cholesterol, 25 ml of phosphate buffer, and 1 ml of MgSO_4. Swirl to mix all ingredients and pour plates.

-Nitrophenyl phosphate (MW 263.1)
0.05 M
Dissolve 1.32 grams of -nitrophenyl phosphate to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.
0.8% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.8 grams of -nitrophenyl phosphate to a final volume of 100 ml of water or buffer.
Note:
Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, supplies this compound as Sigma 104, Phosphatase Substrate, Cat. # 104-0.

Osmium tetroxide (OSO_4 MW 254.2)
1%
Osmium tetroxide is a gas which is used in solution for EM preservation. It is best purchased in sealed vials of 2 ml of 4% OsO/4/. For use, add 6.0 ml of water or buffer to the 2.0 ml of 4% osmium tetroxide. Seal in a tightly sealed container, wrapped with aluminium foil and keep in the refrigerator. Use of a fume hood is mandatory when using OsO/4/. Osmium tetroxide will rapidly fix the nasal passages and exposed cornea if not properly vented. It should be handled with extreme care.

Perchloric acid (PCA MW 100.47)
2% (w/v)

Dissolve 2.0 grams of PCA to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Percoll
Colloidal PVP coated silica. Available from Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis. Cat. #P 1644.

Periodic Acid (Periodate Used for PAS reaction)
Dissolve 0.6 grams of periodic acid in 100 ml of water and add 0.3 ml of concentrated nitric acid.

Phenazine methosulfate (PMS MW 306.34)
Mutagen and irritant.
0.033% (v/v)

Add 33 µ l of phenazine methosulfate to 90 ml of water or buffer and make up to 100 ml final volume. Must be made immediately prior to use.

Phenol mixture
Combine 555 ml of aqueous phenol (or 500 grams of phenol crystals plus 55 ml of water) with 70 ml of mcresol. Add 0.5 grams of 8-hydroxyquinoline.

Phenol will cause severe burns and readily dissolves all plastic and rubber compounds. Use extreme caution when handling this compound.

-Phenylenediamene oxalate (PPDO MW 198.18)
0.02% (w/v)
Dissolve 20 mg of PPDO to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)
Mix 100 ml Ca^+^+/Mg^+^+ fr ee 10X PBSA with 800 ml of distilled water. Separately, dissolve 0.1 gram of magnesium chloride and 0.1 gram of anhydrous calcium chloride to a final volume of 100 ml with water. With constant stirring, slowly add the magnesium/calcium chloride solution t o the diluted PBSA. If a precipitate forms, start over, and add slower with continuous stirring.

Ca^+^+/Mg^+^+ free Phos phate buffered saline - 10X (10X PBSA)
Dissolve 80 grams of NaCl, 2.0 grams of KCl, 15.0 grams of Dibasic sodium phosphate and 2.0 grams of Monobasic potassium phosphate in 1 liter of distilled water. This makes a 10X solution of Ca^+/Mg^+^+ free phosphate buffered saline. Dilute 1:10 prior to use. Store in a refrige rator.

Phosphate buffered saline-Tween 20 (4.8)
Mix PBS and add 0.1% (v/v) Tween 20.

Phytohemaglutinin (PHA)
Available as kidney bean lectin. It is typically used as a stock solution of 10-20 g/ml in balanced salt solution. For tissue culture it must be cold sterilized prior to use.

Potassium chloride (KCl MW 74.55)
1 M
Dissolve 74.55 grams of KCl to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer. For other concentrations, multiply the weight by the required molarity. For example, for 0.150 M (150 mM), use 0.150 X 74.55, or 11.183 grams of KCl in 1 liter of water or buffer. Use half as much to obtain 0.075 M for karyotyping.

Potassium cyanide (KCN MW 65.11)
8 mM
Dissolve 52 mg KCN to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Potassium phosphate, monobasic (KH_2PO_4 MW 136.09)
0.01M
Dissolve 1.36 grams of monobasic potassium phosphate to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Potassium phosphate, dibasic (K_2HPO_4 MW 174)
0.01 M
Dissolve 1.74 grams of dibasic potassium phosphate to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Potassium phosphate buffer
0.01M
pH 7.4
Prepare 500 ml of 0.01 M K_2HPO_4 and 500 ml of 0.01 M KH_2PO_4 Place the K2HPO_4 onto a magnetic stirrer and insert a pH electrode. Ad d the KH_2PO_4 slowly to adjust the pH to 7.4.

Potassium hydroxide (KOH MW 56.10)
0.5 N
Dissolve 28.05 grams of KOH to a final volume of 1 liter with water.
10% (w/v)
Dissolve 10 grams of KOH to a final volume of 100 ml with water. Store in a plastic container.

Potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt KNaC_4H_6O_6 · 4H_2O MW 282.23)

n-Propanol (C_3H_7OH MW 60.11)
Density = 0.8035 grams/ml
3 M
The n-propanol can be weighed (180.3 grams) or measured volumetrically by using the density. That is, 180.3 grams 0.8035 grams/ml or 224.4 ml of n-propanol. Weigh or measure the appropriate amount and dilute to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Protein Buffer
Dissolve 1.46 grams of KH_2PO_4 and 0.92 grams of K2HPO_4 in 80 ml of distilled water. Add 2.5 grams of crystalline serum albumin and adjust the volume to a final 100 ml with water.

Pyronin Y (acetone)
0.6% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.6 grams of pyronin Y in 100 ml of acetone.

Ribonuclease
0.1% (w/v)
Dissolve 10 mg of pancreatic ribonuclease type A in 10 ml of water or buffer. Use for enzyme treatment of histological sections by floating 0.5-1.0 ml of this solution onto the section, with the slide set into a covered petri plate.

Safranin
Dissolve 2.5 grams of Safranin O in 10 ml of 95% ethanol and dilute to 100 ml with water.

Saline (NaCl)
0.85% (w/v)
Saline refers to a solution of NaCl, with the most common usage for that which is isotonic to mammalian blood cells, notable a 0.85% or 0.9% solution. To mix, dissolve 8.5 grams of NaCl to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Saline citrate (1/10 dilution of SSC)
Dissolve 0.878 grams of NaCl and 0.294 grams of sodium citrate to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Saline citrate buffer (SSC)
20X
It is common to prepare this buffer as a stock 20X solution, to be diluted to 2X, 1X or 0.1X prior to use. To prepare a 20X stock solution, dissolve 175 grams of NaCl and 88 grams of sodium citrate in 900 ml of water. Adjust the pH to 7.0 with 1 N HCl and bring to a final volume of 1 liter.
For use, as a 1X SSC, dilute 1 part 20X stock with 19 parts distilled water. For a 2X SSC, dilute 1 part 20X stock with 9 parts water.

Schiff's Reagent
Dissolve 0.8 grams of basic fuchsin in 85 ml of distilled water. Add 1.9 grams of sodium metabisulfite and 15.0 ml of 1 N HCl. Place the solution in separatory funnel and shake at 2 hour intervals for a period of approximately 12 hours. Add 200 grams of a ctivated charcoal, shake for 1 minute and filter the clear solution. If the solution is still pink, add another 100 grams of charcoal and shake for an additional minute. Filter and store in a dark bottle. Solution should be clear (no pink coloration) for use.

Scott solution
Dissolve 2.0 grams of sodium bicarbonate and 20.0 grams of magnesium sulfate in water to a final volume of 1 liter. Add a pinch of thymol to retard the growth of molds.

SDS
Refer to Sodium lauryl sulfate.

1X SDS-Electrophoresis Running Buffer
Dilute 5X Tris-Glycine buffer to 1X and add 1.0 gram of SDS per liter of 1X Tris-Glycine. The pH should be 8.3 after dilution.

2X SDS Sample Buffer
Dissolve 1.52 grams of Tris base, 2.0 grams of SDS, 20 ml of glycerin, 2.0 ml of -mercaptoethanol and 1 mg of bromophenol blue to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Siliconized pipettes
Pasteur pipettes can be siliconized by soaking them in a beaker containing 5% (v/v) dichlorodimethylsilane in chloroform for about 1 minute. Remove, drain and rinse several times with distilled water. Bake the pipettes at 180 ° C for 2 hours and cool before use.

Dichlorodimethylsilane and chloroform are both toxic and volatile. Use only in proper fume hood and keep all flames away from work area. Insure that all silicone and chloroform are removed from glassware before placing in an oven.

Silver nitrate solution (for electrophoresis staining)
Dissolve 0.15 grams of NaOH in 150 ml of water. Add 3.5 ml of concentrated NH_4OH and bring to a volume of 200 ml. Separately, dissolve 2.0 grams of silver nitrate in a final volume of 10 ml. With constant stirring, add 8.0 ml of the silver nitrate to the 200 ml of NaOH/NH_4OH.
This solution should be prepared immediately prior to use, and used within 30 minutes.

Dispose of this solution with copious flushing. It becomes explosive upon drying.

SM agar medium (Slime Mold medium of Sussman)
Dissolve 10.0 grams of glucose, 10.0 grams of peptone, 1.0 gram of yeast extract, 1.0 gram of MgSO_4, 1.5 grams of KH_2PO_4, 1.0 gram of K2HPO_4 and 20.0 grams of agar to a final volume of 1 liter. Heat to dissolve the agar, autoclave and dispense to petri plates.

Sodium acetate (MW 82.04)
1 M
Dissolve 82.04 grams of sodium acetate to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer.
0.02 M
Dissolve 1.64 grams of sodium acetate to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer.

Sodium acetate buffer
1 M pH 5.7
To 925 ml of 1 M sodium acetate, add 75 ml of 1 M acetic acid.

Sodium azide (MW 65.02)
0.01 M
Dissolve 0.065 grams of sodium azide to a final volume of 100 ml with water.
0.39% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.39 grams of sodium azide to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Sodium barbitol
0.2% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.2 grams of sodium barbitol to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO_3 MW 84.0)
0.1 M
Dissolve 0.84 grams of NaHCO_3 to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Sodium cacodylate buffer
0.2 M
pH 7.4
Prepare a 0.2 M solution of cacodylic acid, sodium salt (MW 159.91). Dissolve 3.20 grams of cacodylic acid, sodium salt to a final volume of 100 ml with water. Adjust the pH to 7.4 with HCL.

Cacodylic acid contains arsenic. Handle properly.

Sodium carbonate (MW 106.0)
2% (w/v)
Dissolve 2.0 grams of sodium carbonate to a final volume of 100 ml with 0.1 N NaOH.
0.1 N NaOH
Used for Lowry Protein assay.

Sodium chloride (MW 58.44)
M
For a molar solution of sodium chloride, dissolve 58.44 grams of NaCl to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer. For corresponding dilutions, multiply the weight by the molarity required. For example, for 0.05 M, multiply 58.44 by 0.05 or 2.92 grams/liter.
%
For % solutions, they are invariably w/v. For a 1 % (w/v) solution, dissolve 1.0 gram of NaCl to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer. Multiply the weight by a corresponding change in % for other concentrations.
200,300,400 mOsM
Osmoles for NaCl are calculated as twice the molar concentration. Thus, a 200 mOsM solution would be .100 M NaCl. Likewise, 300 mOsM would be .150 M and 400 mOsM would be .200 M NaCl.

Sodium citrate (MW 294.10)
0.09 M
Dissolve 2.65 grams of sodium citrate to a final concentration of 100 ml with water.

Sodium citrate/formaldehyde (for silver stained proteins)
Dissolve 5.0 grams of sodium citrate in 800 ml of water, add 5.0 ml of concentrated formalin (37% formaldehyde solution) and dilute to 1 liter with water.

Sodium deoxycholate (Deoxycholic acid, sodium salt MW 392.58)
0.15% (w/v)
Dissolve 150 mg of deoxycholic acid, sodium salt to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Sodium dithionite (Na_2S_2O_6 · 2H_2O MW 242.16)
.1 mg/ml
Dissolve 10 mg of sodium dithionite in 100 ml of water just prior to use. Alternatively, to reduce a solution, the dry powder can be added as needed. Sodium dithionite should be stored at -20 ° C .

Sodium fluoride (NaF MW 42.0)
0.1 M
Dissolve 4.2 grams of NaF to a final volume of 1 liter with water.

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS or SLS MW 288.38)
0.1% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.1 grams of SDS to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer. Mix by gentle stirring, do not shake.
10% (w/v)
Dissolve 10 grams of SDS to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

SDS should not be inhaled in its powder form. When weighing, use a mask, or better, a hood.

Sodium malonate (MW 104.0)
0.6 M
Dissolve 2.49 grams of malonic acid, sodium salt, to a final volume of 25 ml with water or buffer.

Sodium perchlorate (NaClO_4 · H_2O MW 140.47)
1 M
Dissolve 14.01 grams of sodium perchlorate to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Sodium phosphate, monobasic (NaH_2PO_4 H_2O MW 137.99)
1 M
Dissolve 14.01 grams of sodium perchlorate to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.
0.01 M
Dissolve 1.38 grams of monobasic sodium phosphate to a final volume of 1 liter.

Sodium phosphate, dibasic (Na_2HPO_4 · 7H_2O MW 268.07)
1 M
Dissolve 268.07 grams of dibasic sodium phosphate to a final volume of 1 liter.
0.2 M
Dissolve 53.61 grams of dibasic sodium phosphate to a final volume of 1 liter.
0.01 M
Dissolve 2.68 grams of dibasic sodium phosphate to a final volume of 1 liter.

Sodium phosphate buffer
These are the most common buffers used in biology. They are produced by adding equimolar solutions of KH_2PO_4 and Na_2HPO_4. Equal volumes of the two will yield a pH of 7.0, while sodium phosphate will increase the pH. Increased volumes of potassium phosphate will decrease th e pH. The pH can be adjusted from 5.4 to 8.2.
If a pH of 7.0-8.2 is desired, start with 500 ml of sodium phosphate and add potassium phosphate while stirring and monitoring the pH with a pH meter until the desired pH is reached.
If a pH of 5.4-7.0 is desired, start with 500 ml of potassium phosphate and add sodium phosphate until the desired pH is reached.
Typically, the molarity of the buffer will range from 0.01 to 0.1 M. Use the appropriate molarity of KH_2PO_4 and Na_2HPO_4. That is, if 0.05 M buffer is desired, use 0.5 M KH_2PO_4 and 0.5 M Na_2HPO_4 as directed above.

Sodium potassium phosphate buffer
Refer to Sodium phosphate buffer.

Sodium pyrophosphate (Na_4P_2O_7 · 10H_2O MW 446.06)
10 mM
Dissolve 0.446 grams of Na_4P_2O_7 · 10H_2O to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Sodium succinate (MW 270.16)
0.6 M
Dissolve 16.2 grams of succinic acid, sodium salt to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Sorbitol (MW 182.17)
0.33 M
Dissolve 60.12 grams of sorbitol to a final volume of 1 liter with water or buffer.

Sorenson phosphate buffer
Refer to sodium phosphate buffer.
0.2 M pH 7.5
Dissolve 24.14 grams of Na_2HPO_4 and 4.08 grams of KH_2PO_4 in 800 ml of water. Dilute to a final volume of 1 liter.

Subbing solution (slides)
Refer to chrom alum gelatin.

Sucrose (MW 342.3)
1.0 M
Dissolve 34.2 grams of sucrose to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer. For other molarities, multiply the weight by the required molar concentration. For example, for 0.25 M sucrose, weight 34.2 x 0.25 or 8.55 grams to a final volume of 100 ml.
40% (w/v)
Dissolve 40 grams of sucrose to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer. Dilute this solution for lower percent requirements. If using for sucrose density gradients, the sucrose should have 0.1 ml of diethylpyrocarbonate added, the solution brou ght to a boil for 3-5 minutes and cooled before use. This will eliminate RNAase, which would otherwise be a contaminant of the solution. Store all sucrose solutions in a refrigerator

Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4 MW 98.08)

Caution: Sulfuric acid is extremely caustic and will cause severe burns. It must always be added to the water, when making dilutions. Upon addition to water or alcohol, heat will be generated while the solution will contract in volume. Use extreme care in handling this acid.

Concentrated H2SO4 is 17.8 M or 35.6 N. 1.09 N Add 30.6 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid slowly, with constant stirring, and with adequate protection from splashes, to approximately 800 ml of water. Cool and make up volume to 1 liter with water.

Sulfurous acid (for Feulgen Reaction)
Add 1.0 ml of concentrated HCl and 0.4 grams of sodium bisulfite to 100 ml of distilled water. This solution should be made fresh prior to use. It does not store well.

Swabbing detergent
For tissue culture purposes, use a non-toxic detergent designed for surgical scrubbing. e.g. Phisohex, Betadine or equivalent. For most routine swabbing, 70% (v/v) ethanol is sufficient and has the advantage that it will leave no residue.

TEMED (N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine)
Catalyst for PAGE. Use directly and add 10 l TEMED per 15 ml of gel solution.

Toluidine blue
0.1% (w/v)
Dissolve 0.1 grams of toluidine blue in 10 ml of ethanol and add water or citrate buffer (pH 6.8-7.2) to a final volume of 100 ml.

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA CCl3COOH MW 163.4)

Extremely caustic acid. Handle with care.

72% (w/v)
Dissolve 72 grams of TCA to a final volume of 100 ml. TCA is hydroscopic and will readily absorb water. The solid crystals will become liquid if the stock bottle is placed in warm water, with a loose cap (melting point 57-58 ° C. It is easier to handle as a liquid. Storage of solutions greater than 30% (w/v) are not recommended as decomposition is rapid. Therefore these solutions should be made as needed.

Tris buffer
There are many variations on the basic Tris-HCl buffer combination, most of which are commercially available. Solutions with EDTA are known as TE buffers, while solutions with EDTA and acetic acid are known as TAE buffers. The terminology varies with the author, with Tris buffer being used to mean Tris-HCl solutions. Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, carries a full line of the buffers marketed under the tradename of Trizma (base and HCl).
The basic buffer is a combination of Tris (tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) and HCl acid. These are sometimes referred to as Tris-base and Tris-HCl solutions. Tris buffers should not be used below a pH of 7.2 or above a pH of 9.0. Tris buffers are also ex tremely temperature senstive. Directions are given for room temperature (25 ° C). The pH will decrease approximately 0.028 units for each degree decrease in temperature.
1 M
Dissolve 121 grams of Tris in 800 ml of distilled water. Adjust the pH with concentrated HCl. Dilute to a final volume of 1 liter. Lower required molarities can be diluted from this stock or mixed as combinations of lower molarities of Tris and HCl. It is important to measure the pH at the temperature an d molarity that will be used in the final analysis.

Tri-Glycine buffer
5X
Dissolve 15.1 grams of tris base and 72.0 grams of glycine to a final volume of 1 liter. For use, dilute 1 part 5X buffer with 4 parts water.

Trypan blue
0.2 % (w/v)
Dissolve 0.2 grams of trypan blue to a final volume of 100 ml with water.

Trypsin
0.25%
0.25% Dissolve 0.25 grams of crude trypsin in PBSA to a final volume of 100 ml. Cold sterilize by filtration.
Alternatively, purchase pre-diluted crude trypsin, sold as 1:250 which is pre-sterilized as well.
Note:
When using trypsin for tissue disaggregation, it must be subsequently inhibited by the use of serum in the culture media, or by the addition of soya bean trypsin inhibitor.

Trypticase soy broth
Add 17.0 grams of trypticase peptone, 3.0 grams of phytone peptone, 5.0 grams of sodium chloride, 2.5 grams of dipotassium phosphate and 2.5 grams of glucose to 1 liter of water. Adjust the pH to 7.3, and autoclave.

Tween 20 or 80 (Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate)
1% (v/v)
Add 1.0 ml of Tween to 90 ml of water. Mix and dilute to a final volume of 100 ml with water. Note that Tween is extremely viscous and care must be taken to accurately pipette 1.0 ml. Wipe the outside of the pipette before dispensing.

Uranyl acetate (MW 424.19)
5% (w/v)
Dissolve 5.0 grams of uranyl acetate to a final volume of 100 ml in 50% (v/v) ethanol. Store in the dark at room temperature. Allow at least 24 hours for the uranyl acetate to completely dissolve. This solution will keep for about 3 months.

Urea (MW 60.06)
2.5 M
Dissolve 15.02 grams of urea to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.
10 M
Dissolve 60.06 grams of urea to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.
14 M
Dissolve 84.08 grams of urea to a final volume of 100 ml with water or buffer.

Viability stain
Refer to Trypan blue

Return to table of contents


Cell Biology Laboratory Manual
Dr. William H. Heidcamp, Biology Department, Gustavus Adolphus College,