||Appearance under phase contrast microscopy
||Rate of CO fixation (CO/mg chlorophyll/hr)
||Exogenous substrate penetration and requirements
||Electron transport and photophosphorylation capacity
||Rapid, in isotonic or hypertonic sugar, one centrifugation
||Outer mobile jacket present. Bright and highly reflecting. Grana not obvious.
||50 - 250
||NADP and ferricyanide do not penetrate. Slow uptake of ATP, ADP and Pi.
||Presumed to be unimpaired. (ATP/2e approaching 2.0 when assayed in hypotonic medium: good photosynthetic control)
||In isotonic or hypertonic sugar or salt, with 2 or 3 centrifugations
||Bright and highly reflecting. Smooth outline. Grana not obvious. (Class I)
cally but not functionally intact
||NADP, ferricyanide and ADP penetrate. Ferredoxin may not be necessary to add for NADP reduction.
||Good ATP/2e (greater than 1.0 and often aproaching 2.0 when assayed in hypotonic medium). Good photosynthetic control.
||Vigorous in isotonic sugar or salt
||Not bright in appearance. 2-3 times larger than types A and B. Grana conspicuous. (Class II)
||Broken and usually lost in prepara-
tion (stroma also lost)
|Little or none
||NADP, ferricyanide and ADP penetrate. Ferredoxin needs to be added for NADP reduction
||ATP/2e >1.0 or <1.0 depending on isolation and assay conditions. Some photosynthetic control
||Osmotic shock of type A chloroplasts immediately followed by return to isotonic medium
||High rates if carbon pathway intermediates and chloroplast extract added
||Good photosynthetic control
||Resuspend chloroplasts in hypotonic medium
||Ferredoxin needs to be added for NADP reduction
||Higher rates of electron transport and lower rates
of photophosphorylation than types B and C. ATP/2e <1.0. No
|By sonication or detergent treatment or French press
||Ferredoxin and plastocyanin (and some reductase needs
to be added for NADP reduction)
||Photophosphorylation (cyclic only) low or absent. Limited
electron transport when electron donors added