Phillip Stubbes echoes the assumptions and pronouncements of the Elizabethan establishment of
church and state, as published in the official documents under Queen Elizabeth.
Technically, Phillip Stubbes' work is in the form of a dialog between a character called
Philoponus and a second character called Spudeus carried on during a journey. However, the for-
mer, who purports to have traveled in foreign lands, including the island of Ailgna-- i.e., Anglia
spelled backwards--"to acquainte myself with the natures, qualities, properties, and conditions of
all men, to breake myself to the world, to learn nurture, good demeanour, and cyvill behaviour,"7
speaks for the author. Eager Spudeus' function is restricted to asking the questions that allow
Philoponus to respond with long explanation. Philoponus explains that Anglia, a country said to
have been blessed in every respect by the maker as much as ever Shakespeare's John of Gaunt was
to claim in Richard II,8is inhabited by a favored people9that, alas, has completely succumbed to
Pride. It's the kind of claim we should expect from the pen of a Christian moralist who holds that it
is every man's calling to contribute to the moral reformation of his fellow men, if he has such a
gift. Stubbes regards his abilities with the pen his gift. However, when I came across his assertion
that "Pride is tripartite.; namely the pryde of the heart, the pride of the mouth, and the pryde of ap-
parell, which (unles I bee deceived) offendeth God more than the other two. For as the pride of the
heart and mouth is not opposite to the eye, nor visible to the sight, and therefore intice not others to
vanitie and sin (notwithstanding they bee greevous sinnes in the sight of God) so the pride of ap-
parell, remaining in sight, as an exemplarie of evill, induceth the whole man to wickednes and
In response to eager Spudeus' question Philoponus elaborates, explaining that(1) pride of the
heart is perpetrated when "a man lifting him selfe on highe, thinketh of himself above that which is
of him selfe, dreaming a perfection of himselfe. ..., yet pride, with his cousin germayne Philautia,
which is selfe love, perswadeth him that he hath neede of no man's helpe but his owne, ...and that
he is al in all; yea, so perfect and good as no more can be exacted of hym." 11(2) pride of wordes,
or pride of mouth, "is committed when we boast, bragge, or glorie, eyther of our selves, our kin-
dred, consanguynitie, byrth, parentage, and such like: when we extol our selves for any vertue,
sanctimonie of lyfe, sincerytie of Godlynes which eyther is in us, or which we pretend to be in
us." 12Finally, (3) there is pride of apparel, which occurs when we wear clothes "more gorgeous,
7Stubbes, Anatomie,p. 20.
8Stubbes, p. 21:"Apleasant and famous island, immured about by the sea, as it were with a wall, wherein the aire is
verie temperate, the ground fertile, and abounding with all things, either necesssary to man or needefullfor beast."
9Stubbes, p. 21: "A strong kinde of people, audacious, bold, puissant, and heroycal; of grerat magnanimitie,
valiauncie, and prowes, of an incomparable feature, of an excellente complexion, and in all humanitie inferiour to
none under the sunne."
10Stubbes, p. 26.
11Stubbes, p. 28.
12Stubbes, p. 29
firstname.lastname@example.org: CRC 98 Paper3January, 1998